The island experienced a peak in oil palm plantation growth into forests considerably earlier than in Kalimantan, from 2005 to 2009, followed by a peak in timber plantations expansion from 2010 to 2012. Notably, the Sumatra has a substantially higher rate of deforestation pushed by small-scale agriculture and small-scale plantations than Kalimantan. In our case, the change in ecosystem has numerous implications, each in biological and social and economic phrases. In terms of biodiversity, the variation in plantation composition, species prevalence and size, as reflected within the socio-economic standing of the owner, offers for bio-diversity. The conversion of natural forest to plantation forestry decreases the access to environmental goods corresponding to non-timber forestry produce (Sjaastad et al. 2005; McElwee 2009), normally a benefit mainly of interest for the poor strata.