Farmers with forest land, but restricted capital, often used agro-forestry or multi-crop plantations and shortened the cycles of forest bushes to have a more even move of return on their funding. Mortgaging of forest land for other investments or goods was also an opportunity. Farmers with out forest land, and residing in the industrialised areas, had been engaged in forestry in numerous ways. Examples had been these working as middlemen in the wooden trade, those establishing small nurseries to sell seedlings and people working as contract labourers for other farmers or SFEs. Those farmers who lately had lived in distant areas, with traditional shifting cultivation as their primary occupation, have been worst off and had issue in adapting to the rapidly altering society (Fig. ‚Äč (Fig.5). Management and maintenance of the plantations generated employment.

Khaterine William

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